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phillips curve covid

What precautions are needed for individuals who are taking the temperatures of employees, applicants, or customers? Thus, under the current circumstances, company policies should make clear that employees must not enter the workplace without certifying, in connection with daily temperature and other symptom screening, that they have continued to follow fundamental safety practices, such as maintaining social distancing from individuals who are not members of their household; practicing frequent handwashing; and avoiding close contact with anyone exhibiting symptoms or with a confirmed case of coronavirus since last being screened. Changes in the behavior of monetary policy or other changes in the structure of the economy do affect this simple statistical relationship, as we will see. Begin supervisor training as soon as you can to ensure consistent enforcement of performance standards, grievance processing, and lawfully responding to protected concerted activities. I first use the model to show that a flatter Phillips curve could be caused by a structural change unrelated to policy or a change in the behavior of monetary policy. However, in general, a more restrictive state or local shutdown or “shelter-in-place” order will control. Even though air circulation and filtering systems on commercial aircraft are quite effective, there is no escaping the possibility that security lines, airport terminals, and relatively crowded flights can result in closer-than-six-feet contact with others, contact that possibly lasts for hours. There are four main issues to evaluate or re-evaluate if your business will continue remote work practices: proper infrastructure, implementation, remote work plans and a comprehensive remote work policy. In turn, the steady-state value of the real interest rate is equal to. UPDATED ANSWER (May 19, 2020)What if we have an employee who hasn’t worked a full quarter? On the other hand, the central bank would need to respond more aggressively to changes in inflation, assuming that the central bank can affect inflation only indirectly by affecting economic activity. In addition to completing Section 2, you also should enter “COVID-19” in the Additional Information field.”. The guidance states that if an individual obtains benefits through fraudulent measures, the employee or individual will be: (1) ineligible to receive any future unemployment compensation benefit payments; (2) responsible to pay back the benefits obtained because of the fraud; and (3) subject to criminal sanction and prosecution. For non-health benefits, rehires are generally subject to the same waiting periods as a new employee, unless the plan specifically indicates otherwise. You should continue to follow the recommendations issued by state and local health departments when determining the most appropriate actions to take. What rate do we use? Consider your communication to them in advance of their return to work, e.g. Particularly for self-insured plans, the combinations are endless. Depending on how the program is structed, the employee and/or the employer selects the charity to receive all or a portion of the cash equivalent of the foregone leave. The Information Effect of Monetary Policy: Self-Defeating or Optimal? 2007. Number of patients currently hospitalized for confirmed COVID-19: 1,725: Patients currently hospitalized as COVID-19 persons under investigation: 127: Number of patients discharged/transferred within past the 24 hours: 196: Number of facilities anticipating staff shortages (within the next week) 35% FTEs are calculated on a weekly basis. The covered period begins on the date that the lender makes the first disbursement of the PPP loan to the borrower. What should we consider if we may want to return the loan? Finally, you can also advise workers that the refusal of safe work may impact an employee’s entitlement to benefits. Keep your signage, procedures and messaging simple. If you are an essential business employing critical workers, the CDC has adopted. Possibly. Measures may include physical barriers at worksites, staggered shifts, and dividing workers into units and separate them from other units to reduce cross-infections. Yes, you can file an H-1B petition to transfer the worker within the 60-day grace period after termination. The Federal CARES Act expands eligibility to many who, in the past, have not qualified for unemployment benefits, including, but not limited, to those with primary caregiving responsibilities for children who are unable to attend school or child care due to COVID-19, those who have been diagnosed with COVID-19, those with a household member who has been diagnosed with COVID-19, and those providing care to a family or household member with COVID-19. Evaluate the effectiveness of your work assignment and communications system, attendance and timekeeping records, to name a few. If you decide to screen your employees, also plan to check the temperatures of guests, clients, vendors, and contractors to ensure a safe work environment. This relaxation of the in-person document review rule by DHS is clearly a stop-gap measure, and you should treat it as such. A few things to remember when reducing salaries: (1) make sure the salary still meets the federal ($684) and any applicable state minimum salary levels; (2) communicate the reason for the change (e.g., “We are able to bring you back, but we cannot afford to bring you back at the same pay rate you had previously…”); and (3) do not repeatedly change the salary levels – exempt employees should not regularly have their salary levels adjusted. A group of federal agencies clarified that general workplace health and safety screening tests not intended primarily for individual COVID-19 diagnosis or treatment are beyond the scope of the FFCRA, and therefore, not required to be covered without cost-sharing. Can employers delay reinstatement of service members released from active duty following service in COVID-19-affected areas for quarantine purposes? Although typically this is the case, many state unemployment agencies have indicated that unemployment benefits paid to employees laid off due to COVID-19 related reasons will not be charged to the employer’s account. When a reduction in hours results in a loss of coverage, remember that this counts as a COBRA qualifying event. During a crisis like this, people generally want to know how it affects them and their jobs, what they need to do at home and at work, and how the organization is impacted by and handling the crisis. It is important to remember that you may not have to provide a reasonable accommodation unless the employee requests one. Only one employer can actually provide day-to-day supervision under OSHA’s recordkeeping regulations. This proclamation only applies to immigrant visa applicants who were outside the country on April 23 at 11:59 pm Eastern and do not already have a valid immigrant visa or another type of travel document that would permit them to travel to the U.S. You should review this guidance when implementing your cleaning procedures. While employers in many Asian countries are allowed to take their employees’ temperatures several times a day and require their employees to wear masks, for example, such measures may be deemed an invasion of privacy and potentially trigger data protection law violations in countries like the U.K. and Australia. This strategy allows you to show that you took affirmative steps to maintain workplace safety. On its own website, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) offers a number of examples, including, “talking with one or more employees about working conditions,” “participating in a concerted refusal to work in unsafe conditions,” and “joining with co-workers to talk to the media about problems in your workplace.” Employees are generally protected against discipline or discharge for engaging in such activity. The FDA’s website has a list of FDA-approved tests and test developers. We are considering laying off workers given the downturn in our business. UPDATED ANSWER (June 11, 2020)Do any OSHA requirements apply when employees wear face coverings? Consider maintaining any documents related to the following: By taking time to document what happened you will create a road map for your future crisis planning, minimize company risks and improve the efficiency with which you manage the next major event. Questionnaires or notices communicate your reasonable actions to comply with government guidelines for sanitation, social distancing, mask wearing, and other efforts that you use to keep your guests and employees safe. The behavior of households, firms, and monetary policy is captured by three equations: the dynamic IS equation, which pins down the determinants of aggregate demand, the New Keynesian Phillips curve, which characterizes the dynamics of inflation, and the monetary policy rule, which describes how the central bank sets the interest rate. Now that our business has picked up again, can we hire new international employees or hire back the ones we terminated during the pandemic? Maintaining documents with this information increases the likelihood of such a claim. The first Proclamation issued on April 22, 2020 will have minimal impact on most employers. However, rehires may regain employer-sponsored coverage(s) more quickly than a new hire depending on: 1) plan document terms; 2) the length of time between separation from service and rehire; and 3) whether the employer is an applicable large employer subject to ACA employer mandates. You also need to be prepared to assist employees when they need to return large amounts of company information, such as by providing them with external storage devices or FTP sites to return the materials. If we rehire employees and now we have 500 or more employees, can employees still request EPSL or EFMLA? We lowered the pay rates for our hourly non-exempt employees because of the financial strain caused by COVID-19. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) prohibits employers from discriminating against those 40 and older, and therefore the law prohibits you from involuntarily excluding an individual from the workplace based on their being 65 or older – even if you are acting for benevolent reasons such as protecting the employee due to higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19. I then consider one possible adjustment to the conduct of monetary policy following the flattening and I show that whether the adjustment is appropriate depends on what has caused the flattening. You can give employees a bonus to reward them. Depending on the nature of other job changes, such as furloughs, reduction in hours, and compensation, section 3 would not need to be completed. Yes. In this article, I illustrate this point with the help of a modern model of the economy. What steps can we take to prepare for employees to return to the worksite? For instance, in some European countries changing the class or brand of a vehicle provided to an employee may be deemed a change sufficiently material to constitute a breach of contract. Despite the similar name, the New Keynesian Phillips curve is a different type of relationship relative to the Phillips curve described earlier in the introduction. However, you should recommend that the employee use a cloth face covering, as suggested by the CDC, instead of a surgical mask. However, as you increase your workforce, your eligibility for credits may change. In such instances, the same analysis as to whether the child would have attended that specific summer camp or program but for its partial closure due to COVID-19 is applicable. The case is a confirmed case of COVID-19 (meaning an individual has at least one respiratory specimen that tests positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19); The reasonableness of the employer’s investigation into work-relatedness; The evidence available to the employer; and. You may wish to consider the incidence of false-positives or false-negatives associated with a particular test. Depending upon the financial impact the pandemic has had to your business, you may need to ask the union to re-open the CBA to seek mid-term concessions in order to meet evolving customer demands and service hours. What are the 4 components of GDP? The model is simulated for a very large number of periods (1,000,000) so that the numerical results that are reported in this article do not depend in a significant way on the specific realization of the simulation run. During this 60-day grace period, the employee may search for a new employer and may also be rehired by the original employer. Businesses should not require customers to carry medical documentation. For example, while some local jurisdictions are enacting their own paid sick leave requirements specific to COVID-19, some of these laws apply only to employees not covered by the FFCRA. Training or retraining and other accommodations if applicable (such as in the case of a long period of absence or a service-connected disability). The extent of infections has been different in every country and what is deemed legally and socially acceptable can vary greatly. There could be litigation over this issue as more conflict develops between the federal government and state or local governments over this issue. UPDATED ANSWER (April 21, 2020)Should we collect medical information from employees when taking their temperatures? Applications for forgiveness must be submitted within 10 months after the end of the covered period. An employee’s right to refuse to do a task is protected if all of the following conditions are met: In light of the CDC’s guidance recommending that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings (these coverings are not subject to OSHA’s respirator regulation), however, it is not recommended that you refuse an employee’s request to wear a mask at work. UPDATED QUESTION & ANSWER (June 18, 2020)Will the collection of information regarding employees’ temperature checks and/or COVID-19 diagnosis trigger any special obligations under the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act or other state-specific biometric information privacy laws? For tracking recessions section: Furman, "Extracting the Signal from the Noise: 7 Tips for Interpreting Macroeconomic Data," … The EEOC reminded employers that your employees are prohibited by law from harassing other employees through emails, calls, video platforms, or chat communications. career, you may have dealt with several crises. We have not used arbitration agreements in the past. Although the CDC recommends screening employees for fevers of more than 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit, keep in mind some states may recommend different thresholds. Human resources, front-line management and labor counsel should be closely involved in their development. They … Try to make them understand the reasons why their departure is necessary to maintain the health and safety of the entire workplace. Email . Returning travelers must be prepared for various levels of examination and quarantine upon their return and when transiting through other countries. In the event key individuals are unavailable to work, a short-term and long-term succession plan should be adopted to provide stability in daily operations of the organization. These programs typically involve sending flowers to a funeral home, sending food to the home of the affected family, and ensuring management attend funeral events. Unions see this time period as a window through which to accelerate their organizing efforts in advance of a procedural changes that will eventually double the amount of time to educate employees on the heels of a representation petition. Do we have to rehire the same people? Health and safety measures must be tailored accordingly. If the employee still refuses to leave the workplace, you can consider (a) explaining that the employee is now trespassing on private property and if they do not leave you will be forced to call local law enforcement to escort them off the premises; or (b) terminating the employee for insubordination. The second safe harbor for FTEs cures any reduction in FTEs if you can, in good faith, document that you were unable to operate between February 15, 2020, and the end of your covered period at the same level of business activity as you were before February 15, 2020, due to compliance with requirements or guidance issued by HHS, the CDC, or OSHA, related to standards for sanitation, social distancing, or any other worker or customer safety requirement. They will need to understand protocol for access to your workplace as well as new rules that impact them. In some instances, you may have difficulty enforcing a restrictive covenant against an employee who was terminated without cause. Taking Employee Temperatures And Other Medical Tests. However, you will want to avoid any indication that this bonus is really the employee’s pay that was held back, which can have a multitude of implications. A flatter Phillips curve could suggest that economic activity has a smaller effect on inflation. FTE is different than headcount. Instead, use a real-time thermometer and immediately inform employees if their temperature is above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit in a private setting. The alternative is to return the funds if you believe that payment of such wages are not necessary to support the ongoing operations of the company. OSHA standard 29 CFR 1904.31(b)(4) provides that companies and their subcontractors, including staffing agencies, must coordinate their efforts to ensure that each injury and illness is recorded only once on an OSHA 300 log –  by the employer who provides day-to-day supervision. Can you provide remote “help desk” assistance on a long-term basis? This protection extends for 180 days following periods of service of 31-180 days, or for a year following periods of service of 181 days or more. Further, the tester could have a face shield in case someone sneezes or coughs. View interactive coronavirus maps, graphics and county-by-county data on cases and deaths related to the COVID-19 outbreak in North Carolina. For borrowers whose loan amounts are in excess of $2 million, the announcement makes clear that such borrowers that do not return PPP loan funds by May 18 may still have an adequate basis for making the required good-faith certification. Depending on the jurisdiction, you may need to prioritize bringing back formerly terminated employees. What can we do from a care and compassion standpoint if an employee dies during this pandemic given new standards for social distancing? In response to COVID-19 business safety practices, however, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced that it was temporarily relaxing this requirement. What should the application process include? UPDATED QUESTION & ANSWER (April 30, 2020)If we decide to reduce an H-1B worker’s hours to part-time employment and/or reduce pay, are we required to file an amended H-1B petition with USCIS? When can we send our expats back to the foreign countries? However, states are already beginning to shift that burden for cases involving COVID-19. You may have allowed remote work with no policy or prepared a policy specifically designed for the COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak. UPDATED ANSWER (May 8, 2020)For a workers’ compensation claim, who has the burden of proving whether the employee was exposed to COVID-19 in the workplace or not? Again, it all depends on the terms of your plan. A “place of care” is a physical location in which care is provided for the employee’s child while the employee works, which includes summer camps and summer enrichment programs. Further, you should be careful not to release information to someone until you have properly identified them. The Fed’s mandate is to … If there is not a FFCRA or other medical or disability issue, you may be forced with a choice of instructing the employee to return to work (and the potential that they might quit) or terminating the employment relationship. What should you do if an employee claims they have a medical condition that prevents them from wearing a mask or face covering? A summer camp or program may also be “closed” for the purposes of FFCRA leave if it is partially closed for reasons related to COVID-19, i.e., operating at a reduced capacity, such that some children that would have attended that camp or program this summer may no longer do so. 29 C.F.R. Meanwhile, California’s governor issued an order that presumes most workers who contract COVID-19 after being in the workplace – not just front-line or essential workers – are entitled to workers’ compensation benefits. Current enrollment and/or recent prior attendance sufficiently indicate that a camp or program would have been a child’s place of care had it not closed in response to COVID-19. Usually not without the employees’ consent. In the case of leave to care for the employee’s child whose school or place of care is closed, the employee must provide the name of the child, the name of the school or place of care, and a statement that no other suitable person is available to care for the child. However, you should be mindful that doctors and health care professionals may be too busy during the pandemic outbreak to provide fitness-for-duty documentation and be prepared to adjust your expectations accordingly. So the answer to this question generally focuses on employees’ personal domestic air travel. Make sure to check for updates, as this is a rapidly developing field. How soon must a service member report back to work or apply for reinstatement upon return from uniformed service? By having an established starting point, you can focus on other critical matters that demand your attention. “Harassment may occur using electronic communication tools – regardless of whether employees are in the workplace, teleworking, or on leave,” the agency has said. § 826.100(e)(2). Seek guidance from counsel about each particular area prior to reopening. You should also ensure that appropriate security measures are taken to avoid inadvertent or malicious access to the information by third parties, or other employees. If service members would have been promoted with reasonable certainty had they not been absent, they would be entitled to that promotion upon reinstatement. Although employers are not required under the FFCRA/CARES mandate to pay for general testing, as a practical matter, employers often to choose to pay for COVID-19 surveillance testing in furtherance of good employee or customer relations. EFMLA, EPSL, and Employee Retention Credits will continue to be available until December 31, 2020. If you otherwise have work for the employee to perform at the worksite, just being “scared” to come back to work would generally not be a qualifying reason under EPSL. However, because the damages recovered in a workers’ compensation claim are generally capped by statute, plaintiffs’ lawyers may ignore the statutory workers’ compensation system. In addition, Section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) extends broad statutory protection to those employees (in union and non-union settings alike) to engage in “protected concerted activity for mutual aid or protection.” Such activity has been defined to include circumstances in which two or more employees act together to improve their employment terms and conditions, although it has been extended to individual action expressly undertaken on behalf of co-workers. Do employees have to wait until open enrollment to change their elections, as currently required by our plan? Consult your state and local orders. You should engage in the ADA required interactive process with this employee. Can our company reduce our expats’ compensation? When we call employees back from furlough, should we ask them to sign an arbitration agreement? – regardless of how many hours a week the employee is currently working. In addition to workers’ compensation claims, an employee may attempt to bring claims via a tort claim of negligence or wrongful death in civil court. Plans that reverse COVID-19 diagnosis or treatment coverage enhancements at the end of the emergency period will be deemed to have satisfied the Summary of Benefits and Coverage 60-days advance notice obligation for material modifications provided that plan sponsors ensure that participants, beneficiaries and enrollees: (1) were previously notified of the general duration of the additional benefits coverage or reduced cost-sharing; or (2) are notified of the reversal reasonably in advance of the reversal. Waivers are limited in their effectiveness and you should consider the pros and cons before attempting to implement them. Skills Are Bridges Not Gaps: A Skills-Based Approach for Transitioning Workers to Higher-Paying Occupations, 2020 Financial Stability Conference: Stress, Contagion, and Transmission. According to the EEOC’s Technical Assistance Questions and Answers, an employer may choose to administer COVID-19 testing to employees before they enter the workplace to determine if they have the virus. Several recent articles have examined what seems to be a breakdown in the Phillips curve. In addition to PCA and related group activities, you can expect to be on the receiving end of a host of workplace demands for premium pay, PPE, and paid leaves of absence. Document the efforts you took, whether through training, posting signs, changed procedures, or equipment purchased and implemented. UPDATED QUESTION AND ANSWER (July 14, 2020)Can we require employees and customers to wear masks? The Borrower is a self-employed individual, independent contractor, or sole proprietor who had no employees at the time of the PPP loan application; The Borrower did not reduce annual salary or hourly wages of any employee by more than 25% during the covered period compared to the period between January 1, 2020 and March 31, 2020 AND the Borrower did not reduce the number of employees or the average paid hours of employees between January 1, 2020 and the end of the covered period; The Borrower did not reduce annual salary or hourly wages of any employee by more than 25% during the covered period compared to the period between January 1, 2020 and March 31, 2020; and. Constantly remind employees of the symptoms of COVID-19 and urge them to seek medical attention if symptoms appear. For purposes of the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act (BIPA), a biometric identifier is defined as including “retina or iris scans, fingerprints, voiceprints, or hand scans or face geometry.” The definition expressly excludes “human biological samples used for valid scientific testing or screening,” “information captured from a patient in a health care setting or information collected, used, or stored for health care treatment,” or an “image or film of the human anatomy used to diagnose, prognose, or treat an illness or other medical condition or to further validate scientific testing or screening.”. No. A simplified method that assigns a 1.0 for employees who work 40 hours or more per week and 0.5 for employees who work fewer hours may be used at the election of the Borrower. Yes. You may satisfy this requirement by emailing or mailing the notice to its employees or posting it on the internal or external website. UPDATED QUESTION (April 24, 2020)How do we handle benefits waiting periods for rehired employees? Simply download the manufacturer’s Safety Data Sheet (SDS) and share with employees as needed, and make sure the cleaners used are on your list of workplace chemicals used as part of the Hazard Communication Program (which almost all employers maintain). The estimated regression coefficient b is just 0.05, compared to 0.6 in the baseline setting with stickier prices. In such circumstances, there may nonetheless be indicators that a particular camp or program would have been the child’s place of care this summer, for example, by being accepted to a waitlist pending the reopening of the camp or program or the reopening of its registration process. We are proud of our tradition of inclusion, and are working to expand upon it. Can we rehire fewer people, but keep my payroll costs the same? This is an evolving and largely untested area of law. Ecuador was described in April as emerging as a possible "epicentre" of the … The recent experience that suggests a flattening of the Phillips curve has been corroborated by some research.1 What is less clear is what may have been behind the flattening. Courts will have to balance the competing interests. This can also create some complicated considerations as to what time period is covered by this one-time “make whole” payment, which will impact overtime calculations for multiple workweeks. Usually, yes. You can adjust salaries due to economic circumstances. . Now that things have calmed down, should we be more formal about remote work? The threat must be immediate or imminent, which means that an employee must believe that death or serious physical harm could occur within a short time, for example, before OSHA could investigate the problem. Possible accommodations may include something as simple as additional or enhanced personal protective equipment. How did your daily operations change? Although you are still required to create E-Verify cases within three days of the date of hire and to notify employees about Tentative Nonconfirmations (TNCs), USCIS temporarily extended the timeframe to resolve TNCs due to the closure of Social Security Administration and other offices. Work share programs provide a good alternative to layoffs. Therefore, the employer that provides the day-to-day supervision of the worker is responsible for reporting the incident to OSHA. For disinfection, diluted household bleach solutions, alcohol solutions with at least 70% alcohol, and most common EPA-registered household disinfectants should be effective. This year, COVID-related disturbances have reduced Australia’s net migration to about zero, instead of about 150 000, and construction is forecast to remain low over the short term. You should consider adapting the physical workplace to permit social distancing to be implemented to the extent feasible. More specifically, let’s consider the effect of adopting a new monetary policy rule where the interest rate stops responding to output deviations (φy=0) and responds slightly more aggressively to inflation (φπ=1.6).

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