It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Prim Health Care Res Dev. Percentages and risk ratios (with 95% CIs) were used to summarise and compare rates of health-related events in the two arms of the trial as randomized. However, assessments of physical constructs (such as oral health, anthropometry, vision and hearing) could be applied to homeless people on a presumption of validity, because the constructs would be measured clinically in the same manner as for people living in dwellings. The individual quality appraisal items for each potentially-relevant article are provided in Additional file 3. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517002495. Gelberg L, Linn LS, Usatine RP, Smith MH. Health Soc Care Community. Appropriate assessment tools are needed to identify the health needs of adults experiencing homelessness. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2007; all rights reserved. Med Care. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) hierarchy of evidence was applied; methodological quality of included articles was assessed using the McMaster critical appraisal tools and psychometric properties of the tools were appraised using the International Centre for Allied Health Evidence Ready Reckoner. Other potentially-relevant tools were found for conditions which could well be experienced by people who were homeless, including substance use, mental health issues, inadequate diet, poverty, injury and chronic illness. Thiamin status of a sample of homeless clinic attenders in Sydney. 1989;262(14):1973–9. Google Scholar. Springer Nature. Implementation in Australia required the health reviews to be performed by a person's GP as unlike in UK, practice or intellectual disability nurses are not generally available. The participants were adults with intellectual disability (n = 453 in 34 clusters). A holistic health assessment goes beyond focusing solely on physical health. Soc Indic Res. AB, TD, TM, SJG and KG were responsible for drafting the manuscript and all authors critically revised it for important intellectual content. For instance, it cannot be assumed that someone ‘living rough’ is a ‘community dweller’, which was a common description of the population for which the non-validated tools for people experiencing homelessness had been developed or tested  (See Table 1). Chronic pain among homeless persons: characteristics, treatment, and barriers to management. Clusters were pair-matched on size, average age and proportion of adults with Down syndrome, and each pair randomized to intervention or control by a statistician (D.P.) High staff turnover is characteristic of disability services, and in this study only 65 of the original 118 residential care staff could be contacted at its conclusion. Mission impossible? Both tools captured information leading to homelessness, employment options, education, children, housing options, and access to benefits. PLoS Med. These constructs had been identified during interviews with people experiencing homelessness, and were included in the fit-for-purpose tools, rather than existing tools that had been adapted for homeless populations. These difficulties often require interpretation of non-verbal communication, such as behaviour, and proxy communication by carers to GPs. The WHO global healthy ageing initiative promotes good health for all adults, irrespective of country or circumstance [73, 74]. 2014;384(9953):1529–40. Google Scholar. Inadequate attention to disease prevention is also common, with, for example, cervical screening rates one quarter of that in the general population.3–5 Optimal response to these service deficiencies remains debatable. Included articles also explicitly described the study sample as experiencing homelessness as per those proposed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ (ABS) definition of homelessness and provided in the introduction of this paper . Oral health impacts and quality of life in an urban homeless population. 2001;4(3):805–11. 2009;63(11):943–8. Eleven assessment tools in 13 studies had evidence of appropriate psychometric testing for the target population in domains of quality of life and health status, injury, substance use, mental health, psychological and cognitive function. Evidence for familial clustering in breast cancer age of onset, Cohort profile: HABITAT—a longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and health and functioning in mid-to-late adulthood, Plant foods, dietary fibre and risk of ischaemic heart disease in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort, Cohort Profile: The Care Trajectories—Enriched Data (TorSaDE) Cohort, Cohort profile: the China Multi-Ethnic cohort (CMEC) study, About International Journal of Epidemiology, About the International Epidemiological Association, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Measles, mumps and rubella vs diphtheria–tetanus–acellular-pertussis–inactivated-polio–, Immunity in the Swedish population: diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis, Association of maternal diabetes with neurodevelopmental disorders: autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability, Commentary: Role of vitamin D in disease through the lens of Mendelian randomization—Evidence from Mendelian randomization challenges the benefits of vitamin D supplementation for disease prevention. Although we aimed to blind data collection, 70% of CHAP reviews were noted in GP consultation records making it possible those abstractors scrutinized these more closely. 1996;34:220–33. Compared with the control group there was a 6.6-fold increase in detection of vision impairment (95% confidence interval 1.9–40); a 30-fold increase in hearing testing (4.0–230); an increase in immunization updates [tetanus/diphtheria a 9-fold increase (4.2–19)], and improvements in women's health screening [Papanicolau smears were eight times more common (1.8–35)]. Physical activity programming for individuals experiencing homelessness. Collins J, Freeman R. Homeless in north and West Belfast: an oral health needs assessment. 2018. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/682001/Rough_Sleeping_Autumn_2017_Statistical_Release_-_revised.pdf (also https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsofhomelesspeopleinenglandandwales/2013to2017). The Ready Reckoner allows structured standardised comparison of psychometric properties of assessment instruments. A beneficial effect of the Cardiff Health Check on tetanus immunization was reported by Michael Kerr at the 10th World Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities, Helsinki, Finland, 1996. J Rehabil Res Dev. Background People with intellectual disability constitute ∼ 2% of the population. Am J Prev Med. Ortiz-Ospina E, Roser M. Homelessness OurWorldInData.org2017 [Available from: https://ourworldindata.org/homelessness.
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